CONJUNTIONS

Thứ năm - 29/10/2020 04:30
A/ Objectives : - To help Ss to revise the conjuntions and do exercises.
B/ Procedures:
I/ GRAMMAR:
tải xuống (3)
tải xuống (3)
  1. Because, Because of
§»ng sau Because ph¶i dïng 1 c©u hoµn chØnh nh­ng ®»ng sau Because of ph¶i dïng 1 ng÷ danh tõ.
Because/ As / Since + Clause ( Bëi v× )
Eg: Because/ As / Since she was tired she went to bed early= She went to bed early for she was tired.
Notes: Because of + V-ing
Eg: We had to stay at home because it was raining.
= Because of the rain , we had to stay at home.
     Because I felt tired, I went to bed early. = Because of feeling tired, I went to bed early          Because of = on account of = due to
 
  • Nh­ng nªn dïng due to sau ®éng tõ to be cho chuÈn.
Eg: The accident was due to the heavy rain.
 
  • Dïng as a result of ®Ó nhÊn m¹nh hËu qu¶ cña hµnh ®éng hoÆc sù vËt, sù viÖc.
Eg: He was blinded as a result of a terrible accident.
 
  1. Tõ nèi chØ môc ®Ých vµ kÕt qu¶
  • 1/  “so that” + clause (sao cho, ®Ó ....).
  • Eg: He studied very hard so that he could pass the test.
           I speak slowly so that they can understand.
 
  • Ph¶i ph©n biÖt “so that” trong cÊu tróc nµy víi so that mang nghÜa do ®ã (therefore). C¸ch ph©n biÖt duy nhÊt lµ ®éng tõ ®»ng sau so that mang nghÜa do ®ã diÔn biÕn b×nh th­êng so víi thêi cña ®éng tõ ë mÖnh ®Ò ®»ng tr­íc.
Eg: We heard nothing from him so that ( = therefore) we wondered if he moved away.
*2/ In order to / So as to + V... ( §Ó....)
* In order  / So as  to do sth ( §Ó  lµm g× )
Eg: I wrote a letter to my mother so as to/ in order to inform her of my new job.
* In order not  / So as  not to do sth ( §Ó k lµm g× )
I walked in quietly in ordrer / so as not to wake up the children up.
* In order for sb to do sth ( §Ó cho ai  lµm g× )
Eg: I speak slowly in order for them to understand
 
  1. Tõ nèi chØ nguyªn nh©n vµ kÕt qu¶.
  • Trong lo¹i tõ nèi nµy ng­êi ta dïng cÊu tróc so/such .... that = (qu¸, ®Õn nçi mµ )vµ chia lµm nhiÒu lo¹i sö dông.
  • Dïng víi tÝnh tõ vµ phã tõ : CÊu tróc lµ so + adj/ adv + that + clause.
Eg: Terry ran so fast that he broke the previous speed record.
Eg: The weather is so bad that I have to stay at home all day.
* So +   much/ little + N       + that + clause
              many/ few  + Ns
Eg: I had so few job offers that it wasn't difficult to select one.
Eg: He has invested so much money in the project that he can't abandon it now.

 
  • Dïng víi tÝnh tõ + danh tõ  sè Ýt: such a ... that. Cã thÓ dïng so  theo cÊu tróc : so + adj + a + noun ... that. (Ýt phæ biÕn h¬n)
Ex: It was such a hot day that we decided to stay indoors.
Ex: It was so hot a day that we decided to stay indoors.

 
  • Dïng víi tÝnh tõ + danh tõ sè nhiÒu/kh«ng ®Õm ®­îc: such ... that. TuyÖt ®èi kh«ng ®­îc dïng so.
Ex: They are such beautiful pictures that everybody will want one.
Ex: This is such difficult homework that I will never finish it.
Notes:
so + adj/ adv + that + clause = such + ( a / an ) + adj + N + that + clause.
Eg: Nam is so kind that everybody likes him.
= Nam is such a kind person/ man  that everybody likes him.
    It was such cold weather that we could not go out.
   =  The weather was so bad that we could not go out.
                   4.  Mét sè c¸c tõ nèi mang tÝnh ®iÒu kiÖn kh¸c.
 
  • 1/ Even if + negative verb: cho dï.
Eg: You must go tomorrow even if you aren't ready.
 
  • 2/ Whether or not + positive verb: dï cã hay kh«ng.
Eg: You must go tomorrow whether or not you are ready.
 
  • C¸c ®¹i tõ nghi vÊn ®øng ®Çu c©u còng dïng lµm tõ nèi vµ ®éng tõ theo sau chóng ph¶i chia ë ng«i thø 3 sè Ýt.
Eg: Whether he goes out tonight depends on his girldfriend.
       Why these pupils can not solve this problems makes the teachers confused.
 
  • Mét sè c¸c tõ nèi cã quy luËt riªng cña chóng nÕu kÕt hîp víi nhau
And moreover          And in addtion    And thus    or otherwise
And furthermore      And therefore      But nevertheless   But ... anyway
 
  • NÕu nèi gi÷a hai mÖnh ®Ò, ®»ng tr­íc chóng ph¶i cã dÊu phÈy
Eg: He was exhausted, and therefore his judgement was not very good.
  Nh­ng nÕu nèi gi÷a hai tõ ®¬n th× kh«ng
Eg: The missing piece is small but significant.
*3/ furthermore, besides, morever, what's more ( Ngoµi ra )
Eg: The coat is soft. Furthermore,      it is warm ( C¸i ¸o kho¸c th× mÒm.Ngoµi ra nã cßn
                                 Besides,                                Êm )
                                 Morever,
                             What's more,
4/ But ( nh­ng ) , however, nevertheless( tuy nhiªn )
Eg:-  He is rich but mean ( Anh ta giµu cã nh­ng keo kiÖt )
      -  He is from Brazil but he can't play football.
       - They hadn't trained hard; But, however, nevertheless they won.
     - He had no qualification, but he got the job.
5/ Whereas, while ( Trong khi, ng­îc l¹i )
Eg:Mr Pike is very generous while/ whereas his wife is very mean.
6/ So, therefore, consequently ( Do ®ã, cho nªn, v× thÕ )
Eg: - It started to rain, so we went home.
 
  • He came back late, therefore his father got angry.
7/ And ( vµ )
Eg: - I play football and tennis.
      - I want you to buy that house and move there.
8/ Unless + positive = if ... not: Trõ phi, nÕu kh«ng.( th­êng dïng trong c©u ®k lo¹i I )
Eg: You will be late unless you start at once.= If you don't start at once, you'll be late
CËu sÏ bÞ muén trõ khi cËu b¾t ®Çu ngay =(NÕu cËu kh«ng b¾t ®Çu ngay, cËu sÏ bÞ muén
9/           But for =    If it weren't         + for sth/ sb: NÕu kh«ng v× (®iÒu g× ) – th­êng
                               If it hadn't been                          dïng víi c©u ®k lo¹i 2,3
 
  • HiÖn t¹i
Eg: My father pays my fee, but for that I couldn't be here (But he is here learning)
*1.It is very cold. But for the weather, we would go on holiday.
= If it wasn't for the cold  weather, we would.... ( Trêi rÊt l¹nh, nÕu k v× thêi tiÕt, chóng t«i sÏ ®i nghØ.)
 
  • Qu¸ khø
Eg: My car broken down, but for that we would have been here in time (But they were late)
*2/ It was very cold yesterday. But for the weather, we would have visited our teacher.= If hadn't been for the cold weather, we would have visited our teacher.
10/ Bá If
* Trong c©u ®k lo¹i 3
- If I had known he was ill, I' d have visited him.= Had I known he was.............
- If he hadn't gone to the cinema last night, he wouldn' have got a bad cold.
   = Had he not gone to.............
* Trong c©u ®k lo¹i 2 víi were
 - If she was younger.........= Were she younger........
 
  • 11/ Otherwise: KÎo, nÕu kh«ng th×. ( Cã thÓ dïng víi c©u ®k lo¹i 1,2,3)
Eg: We must be back before midnight otherwise I will be locked out.

 
  • Otherwise + unreal condition: KÎo, nÕu kh«ng th× nh­ng sau nã ph¶i lµ ®iÒu kiÖn kh«ng thÓ thùc hiÖn ®­îc
  • HiÖn t¹i
Eg: Her father supports her finance otherwise she couldn't conduct these experiments (But she can with her father's).
   It is raining now, otherwise would go out
 
  • Qu¸ khø:
Eg: I used a computer, otherwise I would have taken longer with these calculations (But he didn't take any longer).
    Yesterday, I was ill; otherwise I would have gone to Da Lat (H«m qua t«i èm , nÕu k th× t«i ®· ®i §µ L¹t råi)
*L­u ý: Trong tiÕng Anh th«ng tôc (colloquial English) ng­êi ta dïng Or (else )- (NÕu kh«ng) ®Ó thay thÕ cho otherwise.
Eg: Put the jacket on or ( else ) / otherwise you'll catch a cold.( MÆc ¸o vµo nÕu kh«ng con sÏ bÞ l¹nh ®Êy )
= If you don't put the jacket on, you'll catch a cold.

 
 
 
 
  • 12/ Provided/Providing ( that):    = If :   Víi ®iÒu kiÖn lµ, miÔn lµ , nÕu......
        As /  so  long as
           On condition that

Eg: You can camp here providing that you leave no mess.
      If you promise to return my car early, I'll let you take it.( NÕu b¹n høa tr¶ sím, tí sÏ cho b¹n m­în xe.)
 
  • Provided/Providing ( that):    you promise to return my car early, I'll let you take it
     As   long as
   On condition that
     ( MiÔn lµ b¹n høa........... tí sÏ.....................)
 
  • 13/ In case
a. In case of sth = If there is sth : NÕu cã c¸i g×
Eg: In case of fire, ring this number= If there is a fire, ring this number.
( Trong tr­êng hîp cã ch¸y, h·y gäi sè nµy)
b. In case : Phßng khi ( §éng tõ sau in case dïng th× hiÖn t¹i ®¬n )
Eg: I'll buy some more cakes in case there are lots of guests.
 
  • 14/ Suppose/Supposing = What ... if : Gi¶ sö .... th× sau, NÕu ..... th× sao.
Eg: Suppose the plane is late = What (will happen) if the plane is late.
L­u ý:
* Suppose cßn cã thÓ ®­îc dïng ®Ó ®­a ra lêi gîi ý.
Eg: Suppose you ask him = Why don't you ask him.

* L­u ý thµnh ng÷: What if I am: Tao thÕ th× ®· sao nµo (mang tÝnh th¸ch thøc)

 
  • 15/ IF ONLY = WISH (Th­êng dïng víi c©u ®k lo¹i 2,3) ( Gi¸ mµ )
  • If only + S + simple present/will + verb = hope that: hi väng r»ng
Eg : If only he comes in time
Eg : If only he will learn harder for the test next month.
         We don't have a map.If only we had one (Chóng t«i k cã b¶n ®å.Gi¸ mµ chóng t«i cã 1 c¸i )
 
  • If only + S + simple past/past perfect = wish that(C©u ®/k kh«ng thùc hiÖn ®­îc)
Eg: If only he came in time now.
Eg: If only she had studied harder for that test
I didn't know Lan was here yesterday. If only I had known that
 
  • If only + S + would + V
  • DiÔn ®¹t mét hµnh ®éng kh«ng thÓ x¶y ra ë hiÖn t¹i ( ®­îc dïng nh­ 1 vÕ cña c©u ®k )
Eg: If only I were a bit younger, I would apply for that job.
: If only he would drive more slowly = we wish he drived more slowly.
 
  • DiÔn ®¹t mét ­íc muèn v« väng vÒ t­¬ng lai:
Ex: If only it would stop raining
 
  • Immediately = as soon as = the moment (that) = the instant that = directly: ngay lËp tøc
Tell me immediatly (=as soon as ) you have any news.
Phone me the moment that you get the results.
I love you the instant (that) I saw you.
Directly I walked in the door I smelt smoke.
II/ EXERCISES
1/ Rewrite the following sentences.
1. I'll only help you if you promise to try harder. ® Unless.........
2. If you don't take care of those shoes, They won't last for long. ® Unless.........
3.She can't go camping because of her age. ® Were she .........
4. It would have been a superb weekend if it hadn't been for the weather. ®Had it.........
5. If there 's an emergency, ring this number. ® In case .........
6. He spend too much money on his clothes. ® If I ...........
7. You should take a map with you because you might get lost in the mountains.
 ® In case...................
8. We won't go on holiday unless we have enough money. ® If we.................
9. You shouldn't eat too much meat ! ® If I...............................
10. It's such a pity your sister can't come as well. ® If only.......................
11. Keeping calm is the secret of passing your driving test. ® As long as...............
12. It would have been a superb weekend if it hadn't been for the weather
® But for.........................
13. What a shame you didn't tell me earlier. ® If only........................
14. What would you do if there was an earthquake. ® Supposing...........................
15. Pay me back the money, or else I'll tell your mother. ® If.........................
16. We should leave now, otherwise we'll be late for the class. ® If we...........
17. He did that way because he didn't listen to our advice. ®If he............
18. The rough sea prevented the ferry from sailing. ® Because of ..............
19. They set off ( khëi hµnh ) early so that they could reach the village before night.
   ® They set off................
20. As they hadn't met our sister before, I introduced her to them. ® Since..........
21. Because of the rain, we couldn't go out. ® Because...............
22. We drove slowly so that he could follow us. ® We drove.............
23.She left the party quickly. She didn't want to have to say good bye.
   ® She left the party quickly so as..................
24. We left quietly so that we wouldn't disturb the children. ® So as...........
25.As he feared that the police would recognize him, he never went out in daylight ®Fearing...........
* ANSWERS:
1. Unless if you promise to try harder , I won't help you.
2. Unless you take care of those shoes, They won't last for long.
3. Were she younger, she could go camping.
4. Had it not been for the weather ,It would have been a superb weekend.
5. In case of emergency, ring this number.
6. If I were him , I wouldn't spend too much money on his clothes.
7. In case you might get lost in the mountains you should take a map with you.
8. If we don't have enough money, we won't go on holiday.
9. If I were you I wouldn't eat too much meat.
10. If only your sister could come as well.
11. As long as you keep calm, you'll pass your driving test.
12. But for the weather, It would have been a superb weekend.
13. If only hadn't told me earlier.
14. Supposing there was an earthquake.
15. If you don't pay me back money, I'll tell your mother.
16. If we don't leave now, we'll be late or the class.
17. If he had listened to our advice , he wouldn't have done that way.
18. Because the rough sea the ferry couldn't sail.
19. They set off early in order to reach the village before night.
20. Since they hadn't met our sister before, I introduced her to them.
21. Because it was raining, we couldn't go out.
22. We drove slowly in order for him to follow.
23. She left the party quickly so as not want to have to say good bye.
24. So as to disturb the children, we left quietly.
25. Fearing that the police would recognize him, he never went out in daylight.
III/ HOMEWORK:
 
  • Learn by heart the grammar.
  • Prepare about '' Present participles ''


 

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